As the theme of the show revolves around science, many distinguished and high-profile scientists have appeared as guest stars on the show. Famous astrophysicist and Nobel laureate George Smoot had a cameo appearance in the second season.[56] Theoretical physicist Brian Greene appeared in the fourth season, as well as astrophysicist, science populizer, and physics outreach specialist Neil deGrasse Tyson, who also appeared in the twelfth season.
Two physicists from Chicago, Dr. Campbell and Dr. Pemberton, accidentally prove Sheldon and Amy's super-asymmetry theory. This puts them on track for a Nobel Prize, but Leonard points out they tend to go to the experimental scientists who prove a concept instead of theorists like Sheldon who come up with it. Meeting with them, they tell Sheldon they are willing to share the Prize but only three names can be on the submission, and they want to cut Amy out. Amy does not want to prevent Sheldon's lifelong dream, but he goes to President Seibert who agrees to fight for Amy on their behalf. Meanwhile, Bernadette's drug has been approved and she wants to promote Penny to lead the marketing team. Penny resists, knowing Bernadette's attitude at work and doubting her own inexperience to take the responsibility, but Bernadette uses reverse-psychology to get Penny to take the job. Penny mirrors Bernadette's commanding style to get the other employees in line, impressing Bernadette.
After Sheldon reminds the guys about the time they mined Bitcoin without him, the guys go on a quest to find their suddenly valuable missing cryptocurrency. They realize the currency is on a laptop which Leonard gave to Penny when they dating, which she then gave to her ex-boyfriend Zack. After Leonard and Penny go to Zack's apartment, he shows them a seven-year-old video that Penny recorded on the laptop soon after she broke up with Leonard. Leonard is touched by the video which shows a drunk Penny lamenting the break-up of her relationship with him.
I read through the article and all the comments (which makes me miss TBBT even more and it hasn’t been off the air a week yet) and noticed that 3 of my favs aren’t mentioned. (1) episode where a bully (Todd Sornecki) steals Sheldon’s online trophies and Penny kicks him in the nuts for Sheldon; (2) the episode where they reveals each others secrets (Leonard slept with Priya; Raj used Sheldon’s tooth brush; Howard told Raj foreigner give gifts to Americans for certain holidays and Sheldon put moths in Leonards food “for science”; (3) the episode where Amy and Sheldon go to the aquarium “as friends”, when Sheldon tells Amy “I can handle a lot of things Amy but getting over you isn’t one of them, I think we should just be friends” it breaks my heart everytime; (4) the episode where Priya buys Leonard glass and he walks into the cafeteria and causes mass chaos, that’s a classic; (5) the episode where Priya ruins the roommate agreement between Sheldon and Leonard, when Leonard buys Sheldon Greek food it’s hilarious. Sheldon gets back at Leonard & Priya by threatening to send an email to Priya’s parents telling that “she’s in a relationship with the whiter than marsmellow fluff Leonard Hofstedter”. Ok just one more, when they all take a road trip to speak at the science convention and Bernadette runs into her former professor/lover played by Rick Foxx and Sheldon banished Penny to the “love car” and Bernie and Howard sing Sonny & Cher “I got you Babe” is funnier than hell. I still crack up when I see Raj look down at Howard’s junk to measure Howard’s junk against Rick Foxx’s, I can’t believe the sensors let that through.

One of the recurring plot lines is the relationship between Leonard and Penny. Leonard becomes attracted to Penny in the pilot episode and his need to do favors for her is a frequent point of humor in the first season. Meanwhile, Penny dates a series of muscular, attractive, unintelligent, and insensitive jocks. Their first long-term relationship begins when Leonard returns from a three-month expedition to the North Pole in the season 3 premiere. However, when Leonard tells Penny that he loves her, she realizes she cannot say it back. Both Leonard and Penny go on to date other people; most notably with Leonard dating Raj's sister Priya for much of season 4. This relationship is jeopardized when Leonard comes to falsely believe that Raj has slept with Penny, and ultimately ends when Priya sleeps with a former boyfriend in "The Good Guy Fluctuation".

Kunal Nayyar as Rajesh Koothrappali:[46] A particle astrophysicist originally from New Delhi, India. Raj is initially unable to talk to women unless he drinks alcohol. Raj also has very feminine tastes and often takes on a stereotypical female role in his friendship with Howard as well as in the group of four men. Raj later dates Lucy (Kate Micucci), who also suffers from social anxiety, but it eventually ends; he later speaks to Penny without alcohol and thus overcomes his selective mutism. He begins dating Emily and their relationship later becomes exclusive. Raj also has a Yorkshire Terrier named Cinnamon.

^ Jump up to: a b Kondolojy, Amanda (October 12, 2014). "'Gotham' Has Biggest Adults 18–49 Ratings Increase; 'Gotham' & 'Red Band Society' Top Percentage Gains & 'How To Get Away With Murder' Tops Viewer Gains in Live +7 Ratings for Week Ending September 28". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on October 16, 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
Kaley Cuoco as Penny:[44] An aspiring actress from Omaha, Nebraska. Penny moves in across the hall from Sheldon and Leonard. She waits tables and occasionally tends the bar at the Cheesecake Factory. After giving up hope of becoming a successful actress, Penny becomes a pharmaceutical sales representative. Penny becomes friends with Bernadette and Amy, and they often hang out in each other's apartments. Penny and Leonard form a relationship and eventually marry.
Simon Helberg doesn't have any projects listed in development as of now, but he has had a burgeoning movie career. He was nominated for a Golden Globe for Florence Foster Jenkins and also appeared in Paint It Black. Maybe he's holding out hope for a spinoff for his Howard Wolowitz? When THR asked creator Chuck Lorre if he was gestating on ideas for any Big Bang character spinoffs, he coyly responded, "You can't help but gestate a little..."

With Melissa Rauch saying goodbye to Bernadette Rostenkowski-Wolowitz after joining the show in season three and becoming a series regular in season four, she's already begun to carve out new gigs. Not only did her indie film Ode to Joy make its film festival debut this part April, but she has another film, Steven Soderbergh's The Laundromat co-starring none other than Meryl Streep, in post-production, due for a 2019 release. While wrapping up filming on TBBT, she landed her next TV gig, playing Shira, wife of Paul Scheer's Keith on Showtime's recent Wall Street comedy Black Sunday. With the show recently renewed for a second season to debut on the cable net in 2020, it's looking likely she'll be back with greater availability.
With Leonard, Howard, Raj, and Amy accomplishing so much on their respective projects, Sheldon is forced to admit he has nothing important upon which to work. He makes Amy leave the apartment for a few days so he can focus, but cannot come up with any ideas and calls his mother as a distraction. Leonard and Amy have fun recreating experiments from when they were growing up, boring Penny, so she eats with Sheldon as he mulls over his scientific studies. Penny helps him realize that his study of dark matter is his rebound science from string theory, which Sheldon admits he never truly disregarded, but explaining string theory to her inspires Sheldon, helping him discover a potential breakthrough in the field. Meanwhile Howard is too busy with his family to be in the band with Raj, so Raj brings in Bert. But, when Howard annoys Bernadette by writing an astronaut-themed musical while she is on bed-rest, she makes him rejoin the band. The three are poorly received at a Bar mitzvah after singing Bert's original song about the boulder from Indiana Jones .

By season seven, Galecki, Parsons, and Cuoco were also receiving 0.25% of the series' back-end money. Before production began on the eighth season, the three plus Helberg and Nayyar, looked to renegotiate new contracts, with Galecki, Parsons, and Cuoco seeking around $1 million per episode, as well as more back-end money.[36] Contracts were signed in the beginning of August 2014, giving the three principal actors an estimated $1 million per episode for three years, with the possibility to extend for a fourth year. The deals also include larger pieces of the show, signing bonuses, production deals, and advances towards the back-end.[37] Helberg and Nayyar were also able to renegotiate their contracts, giving them a per-episode pay in the "mid-six-figure range", up from around $100,000 per episode they each received in years prior. The duo, who were looking to have salary parity with Parsons, Galecki, and Cuoco, signed their contracts after the studio and producers threatened to write the characters out of the series if a deal could not be reached before the start of production on season eight.[38] By season 10, Helberg and Nayyar reached the $1 million per episode parity with Parsons, Galecki, and Cuoco, due to a clause in their deals signed in 2014.[39]
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